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2006, 24S3: S3/11-S3/25. 2008, 12 (3): 159-172. 10.1002/ijc.11719. 160. 2008, IARC, Lyon. PATH/CHDC/UNEPI: HPV vaccination in Africa: Lessons learned from a pilot program in Uganda. The majority (72%) of cervical cancer patients seen at the national referral hospital present with advanced disease[23]. California Privacy Statement, Afr J Reprod Health. Genius English Communication Ⅱ の訳です。 所々違うかもしれませんが、 テスト勉強に活用できたらなとおもいます。 抜けてるところはこれからやるところです。 もしよかったら訳せる方お願いします! 2000, 82: 1585-1592.

Chirenje ZM, Rusakaniko S, Kirumbi L, Ngwalle EW, Makuta-Tlebere P, Kaggwa S, Mpanju-Shumbusho W, Makoae L: Situation analysis for cervical cancer diagnosis and treatment in East, Central and Southern African countries. IX. 1999, 15: 50-52. Correspondence to

Google Scholar, PATH/UNEPI/CHDC: HPV demonstration project in Uganda: Results, lessons learned and recommendations. Universal routine HPV vaccination for young girls in Uganda: a review of opportunities and potential obstacles. 2001,  , Abuja,http://www.un.org/ga/aids/pdf/abuja_declaration.pdf, WHO: Commission for Macroeconomics and Health.

Additionally, community members are generally uninformed about the need for vaccination of adolescents. J Pall Care. 2009, 84 (15): 117-132. Google Scholar. 2005, JHU/UNICEF, Baltimore/New York, Child Health and Development Centre, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, P. O.

Terms and Conditions,

3Uganda Virus Research Institute, P.O. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19990315)80:6<827::AID-IJC6>3.0.CO;2-P. Lancet T: Financing HPV vaccination in developing countries. Uganda is one of the world’s poorest countries with approximately 38.0% of her population living below the international poverty line[36].

Moscicki AB, Hills N, Shiboski S, Powell K, Jay N, Hanson E, Miller S, Clayton L, Farhat S, Broering J, Darragh T, Palefsky J: Risks for incident human papillomavirus infection and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion development in young females. A woman’s lifetime risk of acquiring HPV infection is greater than 80% and most infections occur within 3–4 years of sexual debut[4, 5]. The limited number of trained personnel, infrequent supply of basic materials, poorly equipped laboratory facilities and the potential difficulty of following-up women with positive smears in a setting where there is neither national identification cards nor street addresses make it difficult to have an organized national screening and treatment program[22].

10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.04.053.

Compared to USA, Uganda’s expenditure as percentage of GDP is low, 16.2% and 8.2%, respectively[37]. Although data on acceptability of the HPV vaccine is limited, health workers and teachers endorsed the HPV vaccine[30].

Parents were motivated to have their daughters vaccinated by their positive perception of the role of vaccines in disease prevention in general and that HPV vaccination was a government program[32].

GSK donated 50,000 doses of its bivalent vaccine (Cervarix) to vaccinate young girls in Ibanda and Nakasongola districts[30]. 10.2307/25549730. WHO/ICO Information Centre: HPV and Cervical cancer. PubMed Central  The antigens in these vaccines protect against oncogenic HPV types 16 and 18 responsible for 70% of cervical cancers, globally[9]. 1999, 80: 827-841.

Uganda has opportunities that could enhance the introduction of universal routine HPV vaccination of young adolescent girls including: The GOU is committed to protecting women of child bearing age from vaccine preventable diseases.

Gardasil access program.http://www.gardasilaccessprogram.org/x/About%20GAP%20Fact%20Sheet%20FINAL(17).pdf. de Sanjosé S, Diaz M, Castellsagué X, Clifford R, Bruni L, Munoz N, Bosch FX: Worldwide prevalence and genotype distribution of cervical human papillomavirus DNA in women with normal cytology: a meta-analysis. Gynecol Obstet Invest. Wabinga H, Parkin DM, Wabwire-Mangen F, Nambooze S: Trends in cancer incidence in Kyadondo County, Uganda 1960–97. International perspective.

Cervarix® made by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium and Gardasil® made by Merck & Co. Inc.,Whitestation, NJ, USA.

The Economist Intelligence Unit: Breakaway: The global burden of cancer-challenges and opportunities. By the end of 2011, over 30 high- and middle- income settings had introduced routine HPV vaccination in their national vaccination programs compared to only one (Rwanda) in SSA[16]. CAS  GAVI has recently offered new support for HPV vaccine[50]. With the existing infrastructure, the capacity to store HPV vaccines seems inadequate as a result of broken down equipment and shortage of gas cylinders required to run the refrigerators during frequent power outages[33].

With ample planning and appropriate packaging of messages to the community, it is feasible to deliver an HPV vaccine to young adolescent girls using existing health and educational infrastructure if adequate financial resources are available[30]. Infectious Agents and Cancer

PubMed  4)and what she chose to call "democracy" in Uganda, 5)a "workshop" in Eritrea, 6)and a village in Senegal where "grass-roots efforts are under way to train citizens about the institutions of democracy."

Cervical cancer is a public health priority in Uganda where it contributes to about 50–60% of all female malignancies. Am J Epidemiol.

Consequently, the prognosis of cervical cancer patients is very poor with a 5-year relative survival of approximately 20% compared to about 64% for black Americans of USA[25].

PubMed Central  Munoz N, Bosch FX, Castellsague X, Diaz M, de Sanjose S, Hammouda D, Kerti SV, Meijer CJLM: Against which human papillomatypes shall we vaccinate and screen? Box 6717, Kampala, Uganda. 2001, WHO, Geneva.

Gardasil also prevents non oncogenic HPV 6 and 11 responsible for about 90% of genital warts but rarely cause anogenital cancers[11].

どなたか教えてください!!お願いします。, 丁寧に説明していただきありがとうございました。 FMM, ARK, PBN & EKM made substantial contributions to the manuscript and contributed to data interpretation. Palefsky JM, Gillison ML, Strickler HD: Chapter 16: HPV vaccines in immunocompromised women and men.

Most of these women have never heard of cervical cancer. Also, the ruling National Resistance Movement party in its manifesto 2011–2016 pledged to scale up HPV vaccination[46]. A total of 417 primary schools and 69 health facilities in these districts participated in the demonstration project[32]. Genius is the world’s biggest collection of song lyrics and musical knowledge. Lancet Infect Dis. This article reviews the existing realities in Uganda to identify opportunities and potential obstacles of providing universal routine HPV vaccination to young adolescent girls.

2004, IARC Press, Lyon. 2007, 7 (7): 453-459. Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda, Uganda Virus Research Institute, P.O. Uganda’s per capita expenditure on health estimated at only US$12.5 falls short of the US$34 per capita recommended by the WHO for delivery of a basic health care package that includes immunization[40]. 2005, 97: 577-586. Compared to HIV negative women, HIV positive women seem to have higher risk[27] and early onset of cervical cancer[28]. Google Scholar.

The fact that approximately 10,000 girls completed all the 3 doses of vaccination demonstrated their acceptability of the HPV vaccine[30].

2006, 24 (S3): S3/132-S3139. 10.1038/sj.bjc.6601034. There are currently on-going discussions within the MOH to introduce pneumococcal, rotavirus and HPV vaccines before 2015.

Past experience has shown that there is usually a lag period of 15–20 years between the introduction of new vaccines in high- and low- income settings due to issues of financing, procurement and alternative pathways to vaccine development and production[17]. Int J Cancer. 2011, PATH, Seattle. IARC CancerBase No. Article 

2010,  , Kampala, GOU: Public Health Act 1935 (Chapter 281).

This provides an opportunity to pool together available resources. 0; ... 5 和訳お願いします。 The use of my toes was the only sign of

This introduces uncertainty about the proportion of cervical cancer cases that will be potentially prevented by vaccination.

Cite this article. Bull World Health Organ.

2001, 79 (2): 127-132. Vaccine. Given the widespread cultural practice of early marriages to older and sexually experienced partners in most Ugandan communities, out- of- school girls are the most vulnerable to the acquisition of HPV infection. The main sources of funding for the health sector include the central government, donor projects, global initiatives and households through user fees levied in the private wings of hospitals. 2018年04月20日. 和訳しました。 間違いもあるかもしれませんが、 参考にどうぞー 学年: 高校2年生, キーワード: geniusⅱ,read on!2,genius2,read on!,when in uganda,和訳 Justice: What’s the Right Thing to Do? Emphasis should be put on strategies such as integrating school-based and outreach strategy on CDP so as to reach as many adolescent girls with the HPV vaccine[30]. Coverage rates were higher in Ibanda (>85%) than in Nakasongola (~50%) district primarily because of the criteria used to select the girls for vaccination[32]. The Public Health Act 1935 (Ch 281) and 2000 revision and the Local Government Act (Ch 243)[47, 48] mandate the GOU to purchase and introduce vaccines for the public good.

The Uganda National Drug Authority registered both HPV vaccines in 2007. Such issues underscore the importance of appropriate information and communication at all levels in the communities. Lacey CJN, Lowndes CM, Shah KV: Chapter 4: Burden and management of non-cancerous HPV-related condition: HPV 6/11.

Preventive HPV vaccines that protect against HPV 16 and 18 have been commercially available since 2006.

2009, GlobalEconomicImpact, London/New York/Hong Kong,http://www.livestrong.org/pdfs/. Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda. These include (i) Prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV related-diseases, or both constitute a public health priority (ii) Vaccine introduction is programmatically feasible (iii) Sustainable financing can be secured (iv) The cost-effectiveness of vaccination strategies in the Country or region is considered (v) HPV vaccination is targeted to adolescent girls prior to sexual debut. JAMA. Similarly, the new HPV-based screening technologies such as the care HPV™ test (Qiagen, Gaithersburg, MD, USA) presently under evaluation at the national referral hospital is accessed by very few women. Vaccine. Further, with optimal (≥70%) vaccine coverage of a cohort of adolescent girls, the mean lifetime risk of cervical cancer for Ugandan women could be reduced by more than 50%[41]. Vaccine. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. 2004, 109 (3): 418-424.

The cost of the vaccine and its delivery is still a major potential obstacle.